Armed With 1200+ Warplanes, Indian Air Force In A ‘Tight Spot’ Against Chinese PLAAF Over The Himalayas?

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force (PLAAF) is a large, well-trained, technologically advanced air force. Arguably, it is more technologically advanced than the Indian Air Force (IAF)! Significantly, almost all PLAAF platforms and weapon systems are locally developed and manufactured.

The PLAAF’s size and technological edge notwithstanding, the well-trained, motivated, and technologically strong IAF enjoys a significant advantage over the PLAAF in terms of the number of air bases it can operate from to support Indian Army (IA) operations, interdict PLA supply lines and undertake counter-air operations against PLAAF bases.

In the context of the current face-off along with the Ladakh — disputed Tibet border — if the balloon does go up, would the IAF be able to support Indian troops fighting a grim battle perched on high mountains supplied through a tenuous road infrastructure? What if the conflict spreads all along the LAC? What if the conflict escalates into an all-out war?

In the following paragraphs, I will find an objective analysis of PLAAF’s capabilities to see the extent of its threat to IA operations. The study will dwell on PLAAF platforms, training, and likely tactics to determine the danger faced by the IAF.

PLAAF Overview

The following paragraphs will dwell on PLAAF platforms, training, and likely tactics in a border war between India and China.

The PLA will likely employ its following frontline fighters to challenge IAF operations. (Inventory holding obtained from Wikipedia is given in parentheses and includes assets deployed by the PLAAF and People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

  • Su-35 Multi-role strike fighter (24)
  • J-20 Stealth fighter and penetrating sensor (200, of which 150 are likely operationally configured)
  • J-16 Multi-role strike fighter (128)
  • Su-30MKK (76)
  • J-11 Multi-role strike fighter (346)
  • J-10C Multi-role interceptor (435)

Non-frontline fighters in PLAAF inventory, such as J-7, J-8, and JH-7, are unlikely to play a significant role in a war with India because of the limited number of PLAAF air bases in the theater and the fighters’ payload and range limitations when operating from high-altitude airfields.

Unlike the IAF, the PLA has a bomber force comprising 126 Xian H-6 bombers customized for varying roles such as nuclear weapon delivery, EW (Electronic Warfare), low-level penetration, cruise missile carriage, ballistic missile (Dongfeng-21D) carriage, WZ-8 high-speed UAV carriage, aerial refueling, etc.

PLAAF force multipliers include aerial refueling tankers and dozens of AWACS aircraft.

Additionally, the PLAAF deploys around twenty EW aircraft and five Canadian Challenger 850 SIGINT aircraft. The PLAAF also has a large helicopter, transport, and UAV fleet, which I will not dwell upon in this article.

PLAAF Training & Tactics

A 2016 Rand report on PLAAF fighter pilot training concluded that the PLAAF has embarked on a significant reform of its pilot training program to remedy deep-seated flaws in fighter pilot competency. The report was based on a study of articles published in the PLAAF’s official newspaper, Kongjun Bao (Air Force News), on fighter pilot training at operational units over five years.

The study established that the PLAAF is training to fight and win battles against near-peer military adversaries, like the United States, and is acutely aware of its shortcomings. The PLAAF has progressed well beyond ground-controlled scripted air combat scenarios to more combat-realistic exercises that train for the battlefield, not for the test.

PLAAF conducts multi-day, multi-branch exercises spanning units equipped with surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), and radars. During such “Red force vs. Blue force” exercises, adversary forces enjoy autonomy in choosing targets, timings, and tactics. (In PLAAF exercises, the Blue Force represents the adversary, unlike the conventions in the USAF where the Red Force means the adversary). PLAAF exercises include force multipliers like tankers, AWACS/AEW&CS, EW equipment, and aircraft.

The PLAAF needs an analog to the USAF Weapons School (AWS) for developing and disseminating combat skills and tactics across units. As a result, the PLAAF’s ability to maintain broad uniformity in tactical practices still needs to be improved. Unit commanders and other senior cadres exercise autonomy in the content and scope of specific training.

The PLAAF has participated in Aviadarts since the second edition of the Russian-hosted exercise in 2014. PLAAF pilots performing well during Aviadarts are honored and counted alongside the finest Chinese pilots and astronauts.

PLAAF Tactics

The PLAAF’s fighter combat capability would likely pivot around four fighter jets, namely:

  • J-20 Stealth Strike & Penetrating Sensor Fighter
  • Su-35 Multi-role strike fighter
  • J-16 Multi-role Strike fighter
  • J-10C Multi-role Interceptor

Considering the large number of AEW&CS/AWACS aircraft available in the PLAAF inventory, they would likely facilitate EMCON (Emission Control) by PLAAF fighters to reduce the chances of their passive detection by IAF fighters. In other words, operating with an AEW&CS/AWACS platform, PLAAF fighters would not have to switch on their radars and risk revealing their presence.

The PLAAF would combine J-20 and J-16 fighters for air dominance and air superiority missions. The J-16s would sweep the airspace with their powerful Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar while forward deployed and data-linked LO (Low observable) J-20s would engage any adversary aircraft breaking EMCON to engage the radiating J-16s. (A fighter aircraft that switches on its radar to engage a target can be passively detected, tracked, and engaged by an adversary fighter!) The J-20 and the J-16 can carry the PL-15 missile, a Meteor missile analog, with a range of around 150 km.

During hostilities, PLAAF would use J-20 fighters to degrade adversary air defenses. The stealth fighter would take out adversary high-value aerial assets such as AWACS, AEW&CS, and Aerial tankers using PL-15 missiles. Operating as a forward sensor, a J-20 could freely penetrate heavily defended adversary airspace to obtain accurate coordinates of strategic targets such as missile batteries and radar stations. The coordinates would be relayed in real-time over data links to J-16 fighters and J-6H bombers operating outside contested airspace and armed with precision-guided long-range cruise missiles.

After the J-20s had softened adversary air defenses, the PLAAF would rely on J-16 fighters to strike enemy ground forces, including mobile radar stations, and the J-10C to provide local air superiority for the striking fighters.

J-20 Stealth Fighter Threat

The J-20 is a well-designed stealth aircraft featuring a full-extent frontal aspect and limited side aspect LO shaping. A detailed analysis of the fighter can be perused in IAF vs. PLAAF.

Assessing the J-20 Threat

The J-20 would be able to penetrate Indian airspace completely undetected on most occasions. On some occasions, it would be possible for the IAF to detect the J-20 using ground-based or airborne radars.

However, because of the aircraft’s faint radar signature, the IAF would not be able to effectively engage the J-20 using air or ground-launched missiles.

J-20 fighter jet
File: J-20 fighter jet/Twitter

The PLAAF has a limited number of operationally deployed J-20 stealth fighters. The J-20 is a highly specialized aircraft that likely depends on many support facilities at its home base. For example, its RAM (Radar Absorbent Material) coating would frequently need to be redone. It’s unlikely that the J-20 will be deployed for extended periods from bases in Tibet.

J-20 operations from high-altitude air bases on the Tibetan plateau would be constrained by limited payload due to the rarefied air. As a result, their combat range and time over target would be restricted.

Also, the physical displacement of PLAAF air bases from the border area would result in a longer time to target. Under the circumstances, it would not be possible for the PLAAF to effectively keep J-20 fighters on patrol along the entire 3,488 km length of the LAC.

Likely J-20 Employment By PLAAF

The J-20 would likely be employed for specialized roles, such as shooting down high-value IAF assets such as AWACS and aerial tankers. Considering the limited number of aerial tankers and AEW&CS/AWACS assets in its inventory, the IAF would be significantly disadvantaged by any losses.

The PLAAF could also use its J-20 as a penetrating sensor, leveraging its ability to penetrate Indian airspace undetected. As a penetrating sensor, the J-20 would obtain other PLA assets’ target coordinates for cruise or ballistic missile attacks.

In case of an uncontrolled escalation, the J-20 could be used to obtain the coordinates of mobile strategic missile launchers detected by surveillance satellites.

Xian H-6 Bombers

The Chinese military has 270 H-6 strategic bombers in total. Most of them are located on the country’s eastern coast.

Since the H-6s carry cruise missiles, their deployment in the border zone could give the PLA a significant advantage over the Indian army during armed conflict.

H-6J Strategic Bombers
File Image: H-6J Strategic Bomber

The latest H-6 variants are armed with CJ-20 cruise missiles, which feature a ton warhead and a 2,000-kilometer range. Additionally, China has the lighter YJ-63 cruise missiles, which, although they cover distances ten times less than the CJ-20, can be taken on board in larger quantities.

PLA’s Cruise Missile Advantage

The PLA is better armed than the IAF in terms of its inventory range and number of air-launched Land Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM).

Air-Launched LACM

The following PLAAF LACMs are worth noting.


The H-6 is capable of carrying the 500-km range KD-63 and the 1,500-km range CJ-10 LACMs.

The  KD-63 LACM is the latest upgrade of the YJ-63, aka C-603 series cruise missiles, which entered service in 2004 – 2005. The KD-63 features a solid nose cone instead of a glass window, suggesting that it uses radar for terminal guidance instead of TV. The XW-41 turbojet engine powers the missile, which has a range of 500 km.


The CJ-10 LACM, based on the Russian Kh-55 LACM, is a subsonic missile with a 500-kg warhead and a range of over 1,500 km. The missile uses a combination of INS/GPS/TCM (Terrain Contour Matching) for navigation and possibly DSMAC  (Digital Scene-Mapping Area Correlator) for terminal guidance. The H-6 can reportedly carry four missiles externally.


The HN-3 is a subsonic, turbofan-powered missile weighing approximately 2.5 tons. It can travel between 1,200km and 3,000km. The missile uses INS/TERCOM for navigation and  TV/IIR for terminal homing.

China’s PGM / UAV Advantage

The PLA has numerous types of armed UAVs and weapons developed for use by the UAVs. PLA’s armed UAVs include LO UAVs that could penetrate Indian airspace undetected and loiter for hours, performing ISR operations and obtaining coordinates for cruise and tactical ballistic missile targets. PLA LO UAVs also have an attack capability. The IAF doesn’t have any armed UAVs.

China’s Air Defense Capability

The PLA has various short-range, short-range, and medium-range tactical air defense systems (ADS) for VA/VP (Vital A/Vital point) defense. The IAF tactical ADS matches and, in some cases, exceeds PLA systems capabilities.

However, the PLA scores over the IAF in medium-range ADS and IADS (Integrated Air Defense Systems). IADS are complex, multilayered defense systems incorporating ground-based and aerial sensors and multiple surface-to-air missile (SAM) types. Modern IADS like the S-400 feature long-range missiles that restrict freedom of maneuver well outside their land borders.

IAF medium-range ADS like MRSAM are likely superior to the PLA’s HQ-16(Buk) medium-range ADS. However, the PLA has many more HQ-16 systems deployed.

PLA IADS comprises S-300 and S-400 systems. Additionally, the PLA has HQ-16 (Buk) air medium-range and HQ-9 long-range ADS currently in service.

S-400 system
S-400 system

The Chinese armed forces were the first export customers of the Russian-made S-300PMU2 IADS, which can destroy aircraft, cruise missiles, and theater ballistic missiles in intense clutter and jamming environments. They were also the first export customers of the S-400 system!

The S-300PMU2 can engage aerial targets ranging from 3km to 200km at altitudes between 10m to 27,000m. The S-300PMU2 also can detect and destroy anti-ballistic missiles ranging from 5km to 40km and heights between 2,000m and 25,000m.

The system can engage up to six targets simultaneously while guiding up to twelve missiles – two missiles per target, ensuring target kill. Highly automated detection and acquisition procedures also perform better than previous SAM systems.

The S-400 system can engage aerodynamic targets at ranges varying from 3km to 380 km and ballistic targets at ranges varying from 6km to 50 km. It can simultaneously track up to 300 targets and simultaneously engage 80 targets, guiding 160 missiles (two per target) simultaneously.

The S-400 comprises four types of interceptor missiles, covering different segments of the airspace protected by the unit.

The HQ-9 is a two-stage, solid-propellant rocket motor-powered missile with a maximum range of 300 km. It can engage aerodynamic and ballistic targets at up to 41km altitude. The missile features INS guidance and active radar homing. The HQ-9 missile system is roughly analogous to the Patriot/S-300.

In September 2020, press reports suggested that the PLA had moved an S-400 regiment opposite the Chumar sector and another unit opposite the Depsang sector.

PLAAF IADS Limitations

Luckily for the IAF, terrain shielding will prevent PLA IADS from threatening IAF aircraft flying within Indian airspace. Also, IAF strikes into Tibet could reduce the lethality of PLA IADS by flying low. Considering the 4,500 m average elevation of the Tibet plateau, flying low over it wouldn’t pose a significant range or payload penalty on IAF fighters.

Low flying is a stealth technique that the IAF is very comfortable with. IAF strike fighters like the Jaguar, Mirage 2000, and Rafale are honed for low-level flying.

Chinese Fighter Bases

The following is an overview of Chinese fighter bases that would launch fighter operations against the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.

Chinese Fighter Bases Near Ladakh

The following are the PLAAF fighter bases relevant to the Ladakh sector.

Hotan Airbase

Elev: 4,672 ft
Len: 10,499 ft

This airbase has a standard-length runway, which would constrain fighter operations by limiting their payload.

The airbase reportedly hosts around 35-40 J-11, J-8, other fighters, and a few AEW&C.

In September 2020, a report based on satellite imagery revealed that China is constructing a new R/W in Hotan. The existing runway may be constrained by terrain from further lengthening. Building a longer runway would allow their fighters to take off with a full load. The new runway could also be utilized for fighter-sized drone operations, including GJ-11 Sharp Sword and J-8 drones.

Kashgar Airbase

Elev: 4, 529 ft
Len: 10,499

The airbase reportedly hosts J-11, JH-7, UAVs, and H-6K.

Ngari Gunsa Airbase

Elev: 14,022 ft
Len: 14,764 ft

Ngari Gunsa is a dual-use military and civil airport that serves the town of Shiquanhe in the Ngari prefecture.

PLAAF Air Bases Near Arunachal Pradesh

Shigatse Airbase

Elev: 12,408 ft
Len: 16,404 ft

The Shigatse airport has recently been converted into an airbase. Construction of an additional airstrip is in progress on the western side of the main airstrip, likely to be used for UAV operations.

There are nine new aprons and eight new helipads recently constructed on the airbase, one of the satellite images suggests. The support buildings are used for the accommodations of the staff.

Qamdo Bamda Airport

Elevation: 14,436 ft
Length: 14,764 ft

The Bamda airport was upgraded with a longer runway in 2019. After the Doklam stand-off, another airstrip has been added to its eastern side. The additional airstrip would allow this airport to handle two aircraft in tandem.

Nyingchi Mainling: Elevation: 9,675 ft, Length: 9,843

Lhasa Gonggar Airport: Elevation: 11,713 ft, Length: 13,123

After the Doklam stand-off, at least two KJ-500 AEW aircraft have been observed permanently deployed here. Satellite images of October 2017 showed 20 J-11s, eight J-10s, eight Mi-171V, and two KJ-500 AEW aircraft at the airport, making it more of a military airbase.

IAF Air Base Location Advantage

The following annotated Google Earth map illustrates the IAF’s advantage regarding the number and location of airbases.

China’s AWACS Advantage

Data linked with and under the control of an AWACS would pose a formidable challenge to all IAF fighters, including Rafale. With the AWACS providing situational awareness and target tracking information, the J-20 would not need to switch on its powerful AESA radar and risk revealing its position.

The J-20 can relay tracking data obtained from the AWACS to a PL-15 missile that the J-20 has launched till the PL-15 picks up the target on its little AESA active homing terminal tracker.


The following is a brief roundup of PLAAF AWACS platforms.


The KJ-2000 is based on IL-76. The 14-meter non-rotating rotodome houses three phased array radar antennas.


The KJ-200 is based on  Shaanxi Y-8 (An-12 ripoff)


The Shaanxi KJ-500 is based on the Y-9 airframe. It has a fixed dorsal rotodome containing three radar arrays, each containing an active electronically scanned array or AESA radar arranged in a triangular configuration to give full 360° coverage. The new radar design supplants the “balance beam” design used on the earlier Shaanxi KJ-200 AEW&C.

In September 2020, images published on the internet showed an upgraded variant of the KJ-500 equipped with a refueling probe.

PLAAF has deployed KJ-500s to Lhasa-Gonggar Airport in Tibet.


A new variant with a claimed fixed next-generation radar was spotted in 2013.

Cyber Attacks

China will likely use its cyber and electronic attack capabilities in a limited conflict or all-out war. Retired Chinese general Wang Hongguang, a former deputy commander of China’s Nanjing Military Region, reportedly claimed that China could seize air supremacy over Ladakh and simultaneously capture electronic control systems, destroying India’s command network, air defense network (radar network) and air command network.

The PLAAF could target India’s key infrastructures, artillery positions, armored clusters, logistics storage warehouses, oil depots, etc. It would then occupy critical strategic heights, dividing and trapping the Indian deployments by cutting off the Depsang Plain and the Siachen Glacier, and finally, occupying National Highway 1 from Srinagar to Leh and thereby cutting off the connection between Ladakh and the outside world.

That’s a lot of wishful thinking, but it gives insight into the PLA’s intent to use cyber warfare.

The IAF trains to operate in a dense electronic warfare environment and is aware of Chinese cyberattack capabilities.


The capability gap between the IAF and the PLAAF is significant and must be noticed.

In addition to what has been discussed in this article, PLA tactical missiles and weapon systems such as the Type PCL191 MRLS (Guardian-2) with precision strike capability could pose a significant threat to IAF bases and radar units. The mobile PCL 191 modular rocket system can carry eight 370 mm (14½ inch) rockets with a range of 350 km (220 miles) — or two 750 mm Fire Dragon 480 tactical ballistic missiles — each capable of flying up to 500 km.

The combination of the S-400 AD system, AWACS, J-20 fighters, and Su-35 / J-16 fighters represents offensive and defensive capabilities that the IAF cannot match.

The IAF enjoys an edge over the PLAAF regarding the number of air bases it can operate from and their lower elevation.

The IAF and the PLAAF would likely rely on their outstanding pilots and platforms to conduct operations in a limited conflict. In this case, the two air forces would be evenly matched. However, if the conflict escalates and lengthens, drawing average squadron pilots into the battle, the IAF would likely enjoy an advantage due to better training and motivation.

The IAF could stand up to the PLAAF in a short or limited-scope conflict. But with the passage of time or an increase in the scope of the battle, the PLAAF’s numbers, technological superiority, better supply chain on account of local manufacture, and greater national power will start to prevail. In any prolonged conflict, the PLAAF will likely dominate the airspace over the border area and steadily erode the IAF’s warfighting capability.

To remedy the imbalance in the short term, the IAF’s best bet would be to procure cruise missiles in large numbers from Russia for its Su-30MKI and MiG-29K fleet, procure ground-based EW equipment to neutralize the PLA’s advantage in UAVs and PGMS, and step up production of Brahmos-A / upgrade of Su-30MKI for Brahmos-A carriage.

Additionally, the IAF needs to augment its Air Defense capability by procuring MRSAM (Barak-8) missile systems directly from Israel.

  • Originally penned by IAF Fighter Pilot Vijainder Thakur